Comparing Layer-1 Platforms: 2022 Edition- Presented by Solana Foundation and Ava Labs

The Block Research was commissioned by Ava Labs and the Solana Foundation to produce Comparing Layer-1 Platforms: 2022 Edition, which provides an in-depth study across ten dominant smart contract Layer-1 (L1) ecosystems: Algorand, Avalanche, BNB Chain, Cardano, Cosmos, Ethereum, NEAR, Polkadot, Solana, and Tron. In this report, we compare their technical designs, network architectures, on-chain and ecosystem data, fundraising histories, and more. Through quantitative and qualitative analysis, we draw insights into what the future of the broader smart contract landscape could look like over the coming years. 

The Block Research has created “Comparing Layer-1 Platforms: 2022 Edition” presented by Solana Foundation and Ava Labs. To access the full report in PDF format, please fill out the form below: 

in-depth study across ten dominant smart contract Layer-1 (L1) ecosystems:


Many smart contract blockchains built using novel technologies have seen significant user adoption in the past few years. Currently, research and development activity is largely focused on scaling blockchain technologies to accommodate potentially billions of regular users. Several scaling approaches are being experimented on across smart contract platforms:  

  • New Layer-1 (L1) technologies: Incorporate novel technologies (e.g., sharding, zero-knowledge proofs, parallel runtime environments, etc.) within monolithic chains. 
  • Interoperable chains: An ecosystem of app chains, ideally with high security as well as seamless communication and interaction between them. 
  • Sidechain/Layer-2 (L2) solutions: Connect a new chain to an existing chain to leverage its security/decentralization while increasing scalability.